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French borrowings in English, ways to translate them into Russian

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АП 73

Moscow 2020

Content

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE STUDY OF FRENCH LOANWORDS IN ENGLISH AND METHODS OF THEIR TRANSLATION....... 6

1.1. The concept of borrowing in linguistics............................................................. 6

1.2. Classification of borrowings............................................................................... 7

1.3. Sources of French loanwords in English and the lexical and semantic field " Fashion»..................................................................................................................... 10

Conclusions on the first chapter.................................................................................. 13

CHAPTER II. PRACTICAL STUDY OF FRENCH LOANWORDS IN ENGLISH AND WAYS OF THEIR TRANSLATION................................................................. 15

Conclusions on the second chapter............................................................................. 21

CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................. 23

LIST OF LITERATURE SOURCES........................................................................... 25

INTRODUCTION

The lexical composition of the language is constantly in the process of development and enrichment. In many respects, this process is carried out at the expense of borrowing. Research on lexical borrowing has been carried out over the past decades mainly within the framework of two approaches. Thus, representatives of one approach concentrate on the intralinguistic side of the introduction of foreign words into the borrowing language. Representatives of this direction are N. N. Amosova, A. N. Ivanov, L. P. Krysin and other researchers. Proponents of the second approach interpret the phenomenon of borrowing in the context of intersystem borrowing of languages, as well as bilingualism (V. Yu. Rosenzweig, T. P. Ilyashenko).

French loanwords in English are considered interesting from the point of study. During its development, English was influenced by the Norman dialect of French. The Norman conquest led to the establishment of the most extensive borrowings layer in modern English. The words that came from the French language.

It should be noted that fashion is a special phenomenon within the human culture of the twentieth century. Fashion in a certain way expresses the evolutionary trends of modern society. Based on this, the continuous development and improvement of the fashion sphere contributes to the emergence of new terms. We can say that fashion is one of the indicators of social and cultural growth of society.

We emphasize that the terminological apparatus of the fashion sphere includes a wide lexicon. There is a need for its detailed understanding. Given the fact that any culture cultivates its own language of fashion and clothing, the latter are very informative phenomena. Thus, the names of clothing items are communicated to people about the history and their everyday features. Apart from that, the linguistic borrowings theory concerning clothing and fashion is currently considered by many authors as insufficiently developed.

The relevance of this study has a straight connection with the lexical and semantic field of "Fashion" has a high degree of representation of French borrowings.

The purpose of this paper deals with the analyses of the French loanwords in English and the ways of their translation.

The goal made it necessary to solve the following tasks:

1) consider approaches to the concept of borrowing;

2) analyze existing borrowing classifications;

3) consider the sources of French loanwords (lexical and semantic concept “Fashion”) in English;

4) to identify the features of French loanwords in English in the field "Fashion" and the ways of their translation.

The object of the study is the French loanwords in the English language.

The subject of the study is the French loanwords in the English language, which are included in the field "Fashion".

Among the research methods we can name: theoretical analysis, as well as synthesis of available methodological and scientific literature on the problem, description, method of component and quantitative analysis; methods of statistical processing of research results. During the selection of the material, the method of continuous sampling was used.

The material of the study includes the examples of French borrowings in the articles of the "glossy" magazine "Vogue" (2020, No. 2), which were selected using the method of continuous sampling from the texts of the articles. The unit of analysis is the articles published in the publication.

The structure of the work: this course work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion and a list of references. The bibliographic list of the course work includes 23 titles.

CONCLUSION

The purpose of the course study was to analyze the French loanwords in English and how to translate them.

The first chapter deals with the theoretical foundations of the study of French loanwords in English and the ways of their translation. In the course of the analysis of the concept of borrowing in linguistics, it is concluded that borrowing contributes to the development of a language by replenishing its lexical composition. At the same time, the process of borrowing a foreign language word when entering the system of the receiving language goes through several stages.

The borrowing process is active. The new word is processed by the language code. In this case, the word is rearranged and organized according to the approved positions of the language. The process of borrowing in the course of historical development is promoted by cross-cultural contacts, and in the modern world - by the development of mass communication media.

The topic of the second paragraph of the first chapter is the classification of borrowings. The allocation of different types of borrowing is due to a particular language-the donor, the source of borrowing, the way of adapting a foreign word. Along with this, there are common and little - used foreign language vocabulary, international words. There are cultural-historical and purely linguistic borrowings. Another group of researchers notes the existence of direct and indirect borrowing, which is due to the cultural aspect of the problem under consideration.

In the third paragraph of the theoretical chapter, the analysis of the sources of French loanwords in the English language and the lexical and semantic field "Fashion" is made. We have come to the conclusion that the French language in the course of historical development gradually spread throughout the territory of England. During this time period, it existed as a Norman dialect with components of Northeastern dialects. In the XVIII century, such a synthetic language ceased to have the characteristics of spoken, that is, living. As a result, French became the official language of international documentation. We also came to the conclusion that the superiority of the French language gradually ended in the second half of the XVI century. At the same time, it is this period that accounts for the largest share of borrowing from it during this period.

Since it was France that played a significant role in the emergence of fashion as an element of culture, this significantly influenced the linguistic manifestation of fashion. In the field of English, the concept of "fashion" gets its verbal embodiment with the help of such a nominee word as fashion, as well as with the help of its semantic synonyms - vogue, mode, style, trend.

We also considered other words-verbalizations of the concept "fashion": fashion designer, fashion conscious, fashion-forward, fashionista, fashion victim, fashion arbiter and fashionmonger.

We came to the conclusion that the semantic and structural changes that the words of the lexico-semantic field "Fashion" underwent were influenced by intra - and extralinguistic events.

The second chapter of the course work is devoted to the practical study of French borrowings in English and the ways of their translation on the example of the magazine "Vogue USA".

During the review of the manner mag we can come to the decision that in this journal issue alone 20 English words borrowed from the French vocabulary were identified which are included in the lexico - semantic study "Fashion".

The most frequent tokens are dress and fashion. The words style and jacket are used about 3 times less often in the publication. The glamour and couture tokens occur 20 and 19 times in the texts, respectively. Finally, the use of the words "blouse" and "accessory" is noted 11 and 10 times.

In the course of analyzing the borrowing process and the etymology of the most popular French loanwords, we came to the conclusion that a significant proportion of borrowed words have a mixed origin. In a large number of cases, there is a probability of the arrival of a particular vocabulary not only from the French language. Sources of borrowing can be other languages, in particular, Latin.

The crucial role in the formation of the concept of "fashion" in the English language was played by words borrowed from French and some other languages. We also identified lexemes that have a Latin origin.

By analyzing the frequency of use of these tokens in the materials of a modern fashion magazine, we determined that the most common words are dress, fashion, style, jacket, glamour, couture, blouse, accessory and cream.

The suffixes —our, —ance and —age are productive in relation to the word formation of French loanwords. The suffix —ance means state, quality, properties.

The suffix-age has the meaning of the content of something, the collectivity, the fact of the action. It points to a collection, a set, a group of something, to have the value of a process, an action, and the result of an action.

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