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Essey academic writing with references and quotations

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) is both a scientific construct and a cultural meme. The scientific construct of EI was born in 1990, introduced by John (Jack) D. Mayer and Peter Salovey in a seminal paper. The cultural meme entered popular culture in 1995, when New York Times journalist Daniel Goleman took the publishing world by storm with his bestseller Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ.

Published in the early 1990s, John Mayer and Peter Salovey’s seminal research represents emotional intelligence as a set of four specific abilities helping people to effectively deal with their own and others’ emotions:

  • the ability to perceive emotions that allows an emotionally intelligent person to correctly identify the emotions experienced by him or her or another person and to accurately recognize others’ feelings;
  • the ability to use emotions being known about how feelings influence one’s thinking;
  • the ability to understand emotions, which helps anybody to find out the causes and consequences of emotions and how emotions develop over time;
  • the ability to manage emotions is for regulating feelings to better attain specific goals [1].

The ability model put forward by Mayer and Salovey is often regarded as a “gold standard” for research and practice because it comes closest to what is implied by the term emotional intelligence: “the ability to effectively deal with one’s own and others’ feelings”.

Then emotional intelligence became widely popular through journalist Daniel Coleman’s best-selling book “Emotional Intelligence”. Coleman’s perspectives has been labeled as “mixed model” of emotional intelligence.

This alternative view covers a wide array of personality traits, self-perceptions, and other attributes, such as four broad “clusters” with numerous underlying ”competencies.”: the self-awareness cluster includes emotional self-awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence; the self-management cluster includes emotional self-control, transparency, adaptability, achievement orientation, initiative and optimism; the social awareness cluster includes empathy, organizational awareness, and service orientation; the relationship management cluster includes developing others, team work and collaboration, conflict management, change catalyst, inspirational leadership, and influence.